Koç Üniversitesi yıllarımda, Bilgisayar Mühendisliği’nden arta kalan zamanlarda, müzik ana konulu birkaç akademik makale yazma fırsatım oldu. Buradaki amacım, jazz tarihine – hem jazz’ın kökeni olan geleneksel Afrika toplumlarındaki müzik, hem de 20. yüzyılın popüler müziği olarak jazz – değişik bakış açıları getirmekti. Jazz’ı biraz daha derinden anladıktan sonra da, Türk Halk Müziği ve Klasik Türk Musikisi ekseninde jazz’ı tekrar değerlendirdim ve bu anlamda Türk geleneğiyle jazz’ın ilişkisini hem Türk jazz tarihi, hem de Türk jazz dünyasının önde gelen müzisyenlerinden olan Okay Temiz, Burhan Öçal ve Önder Focan örnekleri aracılığıyla inceledim.

Jazz and Turkish Music in 21st Century

Turkey, especially after the 1990s, has integrated into the world economy, and this fast integration has caused the country to undergo transformation. Turkey, now, is interacting with countries from all over the world, and this economical, political, social and cultural interaction has caused a variety of changes in Turkish culture, and has even created a new set of cultural aspects. The wide variety of interactions, known as “globalization” has caused Turkish culture to accept new elements from other cultures. The cultural aspects of western or eastern societies are continuously influencing Turkish culture. The fastened effects of globalization, has lead Turkey to be a place of cultural hybridization and has caused a new understanding of music to be formed []

Music in Traditional African Religions

Music and religion are interrelated phenomena, and are connected to each other in two directions: Music shapes religion, and religion defines music; creating a dynamic process of exchanging characteristics of each. Music is present in religious activities such as praying, meditating, and worshipping socially in groups. It defines the rhythmic structure of the prayer, and creates the necessary mood for the ceremony. Religion defines the rules of the music performed, and determines the roles of the musicians as worshippers. This relation between music and religion exists in the specific areas of the world, where ancient civilizations inhabit. Also, every religion in the world such as Islam, Christianity, Judaism, and Buddhism possesses the effects of music. But the most significant and obvious effect of music on the religion is seen in the African societies which we may call “uncivilized” []

Jazz as an Element of Popular Culture in the Twentieth Century

Jazz, once regarded as the “pop music” by millions of people, is now in a different costume. Throughout the twentieth century, jazz music has evolved in such a way that while at one time it had the power to make people murmur its melodies, it later turned out to be the deepest, and the most sophisticated, and complex genre of music. Once people were living the “Jazz Age,” and jazz was in their lives not only as an element of culture, but as a culture itself. However, with the course of time, it turned out to exist only in pubs, concert halls, magazines, and in the hearts of the musicians. This transition was parallel with the events and the impacts in the history of the humanity in the twentieth century. Starting from its birth, jazz has interacted with many cultures throughout the world, and it has become embedded within these cultures. Classical jazz, big band, swing, bebop, hard-bop, cool, mainstream, west-coast, postmodern, avant-garde, and contemporary eras existed respectively, and they all consisted of different elements of jazz music. Asians, Africans, Scandinavians, Europeans, South Americans, and people from other ethnic, religious, and cultural backgrounds were all participating to create this magical world of music. Although jazz is not very popular as of late, it is still respected by thousands of people, mostly by highly educated intellectuals. This paper will explore the evolution of jazz in the twentieth century as an element of popular culture, and it will analyze the paths of jazz and popular music in the times when they diverge and converge []